Remote Server Backup With rsync

rsync is remote file copy program under Linux. It synchronize file trees across local disks, directories or across a network. It has several advantage over bulky backup software that consume lot of system resources and slow down your pc. rsync uses the remote-update protocol to speed up file transfers when the destination file already exists. The rsync remote-update protocol allows you to transfer differences between two sets of files using an efficient checksum-search algorithm. rsync Features:
  • support for copying links, devices, owners, groups and permissions
  • exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar
  • a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore
  • can use any transparent remote shell, including rsh or ssh
  • does not require root privileges
  • pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs
  • support for anonymous or authenticated rsync servers (ideal for mirroring)
Usage: You need to specify a source and a destination in which one may be remote. rsync *.php foo:src/ this would transfer all files matching the pattern *.php from the current directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the files already exist on the remote system then the sync remote-update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the differences. rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp this would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine. The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships etc are preserved in the transfer. rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp a trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo into the /data/tmp/. A trailing / on a source name means "copy the contents of this directory". Without a trailing slash it means "copy the directory". This difference becomes particularly important when using the --delete option. rsync this would list all the anonymous rsync modules available on the host Available Options -v, --verbose increase verbosity -q, --quiet decrease verbosity -c, --checksum always checksum -a, --archive archive mode -r, --recursive recurse into directories -R, --relative use relative path names -b, --backup make backups (default ~ suffix) --backup-dir make backups into this directory --suffix=SUFFIX override backup suffix -u, --update update only (don't overwrite newer files) -l, --links copy symlinks as symlinks -L, --copy-links copy the referent of symlinks --copy-unsafe-links copy links outside the source tree --safe-links ignore links outside the destination tree -H, --hard-links preserve hard links -p, --perms preserve permissions -o, --owner preserve owner (root only) -g, --group preserve group -D, --devices preserve devices (root only) -t, --times preserve times -S, --sparse handle sparse files efficiently -n, --dry-run show what would have been transferred -W, --whole-file copy whole files, no incremental checks --no-whole-file turn off --whole-file -x, --one-file-system don't cross filesystem boundaries -B, --block-size=SIZE checksum blocking size (default 700) -e, --rsh=COMMAND specify rsh replacement --rsync-path=PATH specify path to rsync on the remote machine -C, --cvs-exclude auto ignore files in the same way CVS does --existing only update files that already exist --ignore-existing ignore files that already exist on the receiving side --delete delete files that don't exist on the sending side --delete-excluded also delete excluded files on the receiving side --delete-after delete after transferring, not before --ignore-errors delete even if there are IO errors --max-delete=NUM don't delete more than NUM files --partial keep partially transferred files --force force deletion of directories even if not empty --numeric-ids don't map uid/gid values by user/group name --timeout=TIME set IO timeout in seconds -I, --ignore-times don't exclude files that match length and time --size-only only use file size when determining if a file should be transferred --modify-window=NUM Timestamp window (seconds) for file match (default=0) -T --temp-dir=DIR create temporary files in directory DIR --compare-dest=DIR also compare destination files relative to DIR -P equivalent to --partial --progress -z, --compress compress file data --exclude=PATTERN exclude files matching PATTERN --exclude-from=FILE exclude patterns listed in FILE --include=PATTERN don't exclude files matching PATTERN --include-from=FILE don't exclude patterns listed in FILE --version print version number --daemon run as a rsync daemon --no-detach do not detach from the parent --address=ADDRESS bind to the specified address --config=FILE specify alternate rsyncd.conf file --port=PORT specify alternate rsyncd port number --blocking-io use blocking IO for the remote shell --no-blocking-io turn off --blocking-io --stats give some file transfer stats --progress show progress during transfer --log-format=FORMAT log file transfers using specified format --password-file=FILE get password from FILE --bwlimit=KBPS limit I/O bandwidth, KBytes per second --read-batch=PREFIX read batch fileset starting with PREFIX --write-batch=PREFIX write batch fileset starting with PREFIX -h, --help show this help screen Environment Variables CVSIGNORE : The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore patterns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more details. RSYNC_RSH : The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as the transport for rsync. This can be used instead of the -e option. RSYNC_PROXY : The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair. RSYNC_PASSWORD : Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows you to run authenticated rsync connections to a rsync daemon without user intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to a shell transport such as ssh. USER or LOGNAME : The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine the default username sent to a rsync server. HOME : The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default .cvsignore file. Exit Values RERR_SYNTAX 1 - Syntax or usage error RERR_PROTOCOL 2 - Protocol incompatibility RERR_FILESELECT 3 - Errors selecting input/output files, dirs RERR_UNSUPPORTED 4 - Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an option was speciifed that is supported by the client and not by the server. RERR_SOCKETIO 10 - Error in socket IO RERR_FILEIO 11 - Error in file IO RERR_STREAMIO 12 - Error in rsync protocol data stream RERR_MESSAGEIO 13 - Errors with program diagnostics RERR_IPC 14 - Error in IPC code RERR_SIGNAL 20 - Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT RERR_WAITCHILD 21 - Some error returned by waitpid() RERR_MALLOC 22 - Error allocating core memory buffers RERR_TIMEOUT 30 - Timeout in data send/receive

Mozy Online System Backup Service

Mozy is no-hassle online backup service that backup important data from your pc without user intervention. It stay in taskbar and take back at mozy remote server silently. It is able backup your outlook, photo, music and other important file specified during configuration. You have the option of select specific files and directories. It has several features, take a look... Features:
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  2. Secure your data with 128-bit SSL encryption.
  3. Secures your files in the storage media with the 448-bit Blowfish encryption. This feature assure you safety of your private data from hackers.
  4. Scheduler to back on specified time.
  5. Ability to take incremental backup by detecting new and changed files.
  6. Backs up Outlook files.
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Fedora 7 Important Services

Fedora 7 Important Services

Managing service in fedora7 is fairly easy. you can use both command line or gui tool to enable disable services. User require to have access of super user to manage service. To access service management GUI in fedora use the following command; For KDE: Start -> System -> Service - Management For GNOME: System > Administration > Server Settings > Services Linux fedora KDE Gnome service management Command line GUI: Use "ntsysv" command on command propmt ntsysv command line text based Linux fedora service management Command line: usage: chkconfig --list [name] chkconfig --add <name> chkconfig --del <name> chkconfig --override <name> chkconfig [--level <levels>] <name> <on|off|reset|resetpriorities> Important Services ConsoleKit ConsoleKit is a system daemon for tracking what users are logged into the system and how they interact with the computer (e.g. which keyboard and mouse they use). This is used by Fedora - Fast User Switching. It is recommended to leave ConsoleKit enabled primarily for Gnome. Other than user switching, both automounting devices and power management in Gnome depends on ConsoleKit. Hence it is generally recommended to leave this service enabled. NetworkManager, NetworkManagerDispatcher NetworkManager is daemon meant to automate switching between network connections. Many laptop users who switch between Wireless WiFi connections and/or Ethernet connections may find this useful. Most stationary computers should have this disabled. Some DHCP users may require this. acpid Advanced Configuration and Power Interface daemon which controls and allows interfacing to power management and certain input devices. This is not installed by default in Fedora 7. It is recommended to be enabled only if you need it. anacron, atd, cron These are schedulers with each having slightly different purposes. It is recommended you keep the general purpose scheduler cron enabled, especially if you keep your computer running for long periods of time. If you are running a server look into which schedulers you require. Most likely atd and anacron should be disabled for desktops/laptops. Note that some sheduled tasks such as cleaning /tmp or /var may require specific schedulers. auditd This stores kernel generated audit records. This information can be used in different ways. SELinux uses the audit daemon to record events. Enable this service if you are using SELinux. autofs This service mounts removable media disks such as USB harddrives on demand. Keep running this service is recommened to enable automoutint removal disks. avahi-daemon, avahi-dnsconfd Avahi is an implementation of zeroconf and is useful for detecting devices and services on local network without a DNS server. This is also the same as mDNS. Most likely this is unnecessary unless you have compatible devices/services. bluetooth, hcid, hidd, sdpd, dund, pand Bluetooth is for portable local wireless devices. Some laptops come with bluetooth support. There are bluetooth mice, headsets and cell phone accessories. Other services with bluetooth: hcid manages all devices, hidd provides support for input devices (keyboard, mouse), dund supports dialup networking over bluetooth, pand allows connections to ethernet networks over bluetooth. btseed, bttrack These services support the automatic seeding and tracking for torrents used by the peer-to-peer networking system BitTorrent. capi For users with ISDN hardware only. Recommened for user to disable if they are not using ISDN. cpuspeed This throttles your CPU runtime frequency to save power. Many modern laptop CPU's support this feature and now many desktops also support this. Most people should enable only if they are users of Pentium-M, Centrino, AMD PowerNow, Transmetta, Intel SpeedStep, Athlon-64, Athlon-X2, Intel Core 2 hardware. Disable this if you want your CPU to remain at a fixed state. cupsd, cups-config-daemon Used for printing. Enable this service if you have CUPS compatible printer. dc_client, dc_server Distcache is for distributed session caching. It is primarily for SSL/TLS servers. Apache can use this. Most desktop users should have these disabled. dhcdbd This basically an interface for the D-BUS system to control networking devices on your computer. It is highly recommended you leave this enabled if you are using NetworkManager, use DHCP, are on a Laptop or require switching between different networks (ie. wired, unwired). firstboot This service is specific to Fedora's installation process meant to perform certain tasks that should only be executed once upon booting after installation. gpm This is the console mouse pointer (no graphics). It is good practice to leave this enabled for runlevel 3 (console) and disabled for runlevel 5 (x-server). haldaemon HAL refers to the Hardware Abstraction Layer. This is a critical service for collecting and maintaing information about hardware from several sources. hplip, hpiod, hpssd HPLIP is a service to support HP printers in Linux, including Inkjet, DeskJet, OfficeJet, Photosmart, Business Inkjet and some LaserJet printers. This supported by HP through HP Linux Printing Project. Enable HPLIP only if you have a supported compatible printer. httpd This is the Apache HTTP Web Server. If you doing web development then enable this service and for other desktop users and/or non-developers users it should be disabled. iptables This is the standard Linux software firewall. This is highly recommended if you are directly connected to internet (cable, DSL, T1). It is not required if you use a hardware firewall (D-Link, Netgear, Linksys, etc). ip6tables This services is the firewall for IPv6 communication. Disable this service if you are not using IPv6. irda, irattach IrDA support infrared communications between devices (laptops, PDA's, mobile phones, calculators, etc). irqbalance This service is to increase performance across processors on a multiprocessor system. For users who do not have multiple processors/multiple cores this should be disabled. However newer computers with multi-core CPU's (Intel Core 2 Duo, AMD X2) should enable this. Leaving this enabled will not effect performance on single CPU/single core systems. isdn This is another form of internet connect service/hardware. Unless you have an ISDN modem. kudzu Kudzu is Fedora's hardware probing service. It optionally configures changed hardware. If you swap hardware or need to detect/re-detect hardware this can be left enabled. However most desktop or servers can disable this and run it only when necessary. lirc LIRC provides support for infrared remote controls in Linux. If you do not have installed infrared hardware, leave this disabled. lisa LISa is LAN information service and provides similar functionality to the "network neighbourhood" concept in Windows. While this is only useful for computers on a network, users of Samba or NFS may not require this. lm_sensors lm_sensors provides monitoring for motherboard sensor values or specific hardware (commonly used with laptops or high-end servers). It is useful for watching realtime values for PC health, etc. This is also popular with GKrellM users. mcstrans This is required to see proper context information when you are using SELinux. By default, Fedora has SELinux enabled. Users who do not use SELinux can safely disable this. mdmonitor Is useful for monitoring Software RAID or LVM information. It is not a critical service and may be disabled. messagebus This is an IPC (Interprocess Communication) service for Linux. Specifically this communicates with D-BUS, a critical component. It is highly recommended to leave this enabled. nasd The Network Audio System is a network transparent, client/server audio transport system. It can be described as the audio equivalent of an X server. This is connected into the KDE sound system. netconsole Initializes network console logging. This can be left to its default disabled state. netfs This is used for automatic mounting of any shared network file space such as NFS, Samba, etc on bootup. Useful if you connect to another server or filesharing on your local network. Most single desktop/laptop users should have this disabled. netplugd Netplugd can monitor network interfaces and executes commands when their state changes. This can be left to default disabled. nfs, nfslock This the standard network file sharing for Unix/Linux/BSD style operating systems. Recommended to enable this service if you are using file sharing in network. nscd This daemon handles passwords and caches them for naming/authentication services like NIS, NIS+, LDAP, or hesiod. ntpd This automatically updates the system time from the internet. If you have an always-on internet connection it is recommended you enable this service. pcscd Provides support for Smart Cards and Smart Card Readers. This are small chip like devices that are embedded in certain credit cards, identification cards, etc. readahead_early, readahead_later This services is to improve startup performance by preloading certain applications into memory. If you wish to startup faster leave this enabled. restorecond Is used to monitor and restore proper file contexts for SELinux. Highly recommended for SELinux users. rpcbind This manages remote procedure call support for other services (such as NFS or NIS). This is similar to 'portmap'. This can be disabled if you have no other services depend on it. sendmail If you run a server or you like to transfer or support a locally shared IMAP or POP3 service then enable this service. Recommened service for web developers. setroubleshoot This is the SELinux Troubleshooting Daemon. This services provides information to the setroubleshoot Browser. This application provides notices on the desktop if there were SELinux problems (usually AVC denials. While this is not a critical service it is incredibly helpful for debuggin SELinux issues. smartd The SMART Disk Monitoring Daemon can be used to monitor and predict disk failure or problems on hard disk that support this. Most desktop users may not need this unless there is possible problems, but is it recommend to be left enabled especially for servers. smb The SAMBA daemon is required to share files from Linux to Windows. This should be enabled only if you have windows computers that require file access to Linux. There is information on configuring Samba for Fedora 7. smolt This daemon provides monthly information for Smolt which is gather statistics and information to assist Fedora developers. Statistics are available. Users who wish to help and share information should enable this, otherwise leave this disabled. sshd SSH allows other users to log into or run applications on your computer from another computer on your network or remotely. This is a potential security issue. This is not needed if you have no other computers or no need to login from a remote location. yum-updatesd The YUM Update notifier daemon provides notification of updates which are available to be installed to your computer.
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